#pamir Knot
THE UNIQUE OROGRAPHIC feature known as the Pamir Knot takes its name from the mountains on which it is centered, the Pamir. The “knot” refers to the convergence of some of the world’s major mountain ranges, including the TIAN SHAN, Karakorum, Kunlun, HINDU KUSH, and Pamir systems. The origin of the word pamir is unclear, although the Tajik name for the region is Bom-i-Dunyo, or “roof of the world.” Other sources claim “feet of the sun” and the high altitude grasslands of the region as sources of “pamir.” While a number of countries claim to be home to the Pamir Knot, it is actually centered in the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region of eastern TAJIKISTAN. Fringe areas extend into AFGHANISTAN, PAKISTAN, CHINA, and KYRGYZSTAN.

In terms of relative location, the Pamir Mountains region remains one of the least accessible areas in the world. High peaks of the Pamir include Communism Peak (24,590 ft or 7,7495 m), Lenin Peak (23,403 ft or 7,133 m), and Peak Evgenia Korjenevskaya (23,311 ft or 7,105 m). In terms of mountaineering, these towering peaks have been scaled a number of times, although lesser peaks of the Pamir remain as yet unconquered. Considerable temperature variation exists within the Pamir region, with winter daily lows ranging from 1 degree F (-17 degrees C) in eastern areas to 21 degrees F (-6 degrees C) in the west. The Pamir region is heavily glaciated, including Murghab Pass, which stretches for 144 mi (231 km).

URBANIZATION IS THE process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities. The definition of what constitutes a city changes from time to time and place to place, but it is most usual to explain the term as a matter of demographics. The United Nations has recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20,000 inhabitants living close together as urban; but, in fact, nations compile their statistics on the basis of many different standards. For instance, the UNITED STATES uses “urban place” to mean any locality where more than 2,500 people live.

Large permanent assemblies of people have arisen historically in two sharply contrasting ways. Some settlements emerge because a group of people chose to live near each other in order to realize a way life made possible by production activities carried on elsewhere. Other settlements arise because people who work within certain production facilities wish to live in the immediate vicinity of these facilities. In general, then, population may be permanently assembled in order to consume the products and services of labor, regardless of where they are produced, or in order to produce products and services, regardless of where they are consumed.